Wrestling 101 > Concepts, Lingo, and Rules

TYPES OF MEETS

  • Duel A dual is any head to head match between two schools. Conference meets are generally duals.
  • Tri or Quad A tri meet and a quad meet involve three or four teams at the same event. Each team will wrestle two separate matches at a tri or quad.
  • Tournaments Tournaments are generally all day on weekends. They involve several teams and can be individual competitions or team competitions. An athlete may not wrestle more than five matches in a tournament, and no more than two matches at a dual, tri or quad.

OFFICIALS SIGNALS

During the match the referee will use various hand signals to show what is happening in the match. The referee will have two bands one on each wrist one red and one green which correspond to the anklets worn by the wrestlers competing. If the wrestler with the red anklet scores a point(s) the referee will raise his arm with the red wristban and will raise his arm with the corresponding color to signify points earned by the wrestler with the matching anklet as well as to indicate other actions in the match. Below are the most common referee hand signals used:

SCORING

There are five ways to score points in a wrestling match:

  1. Takedown – (2 points) Two points are awarded for taking an opponent down to the mat and controlling them.
  2. Escape – (1 point) One point is awarded for getting away or getting to a neutral position after the opponent has the wrestler on the mat.
  3. Reversal – (2 points) Two points are awarded when the opponent has has the wrestler down on the mat and the wrestler comes from underneath to gain control of the opponent.
  4. Near Fall (Back Points) – (2 or 3 points) Near fall points are awarded when the wrestler almost, but not quite, pins their opponent. A near fall (near pin) is when the shoulder of the opponent are held for two seconds within four inches of the mat, OR one of the opponent's shoulders touches the mat and the other shoulder is at a 45 degree angle coming down to the mat, OR the opponent is held in a high bridge or back on both elbows.
    • If a near fall lasts for two seconds, you get 2 points. If a near fall lasts for 5 seconds, you get 3 points.
  5. Penalty Points – (1 or 2 points) Opponents are awarded points if the following infractions are commited:
    • Illegal Holds – There are several holds that the referee will penalize for without warning. (There are other holds called “potentially dangerous holds” which the referee may stop action but will not assess a penalty for).
    • Technical Violations.
      • Going off the mat or forcing the opponent off the mat to avoid wrestling (“fleeing the mat.”).
      • Grabbing clothing, the mat, or the headgear.
      • Locked or overlapped hands: If down on the mat in control of the opponent, the wrestler cannot lock or overlap their hands, fingers or arms around the opponent’s body or both legs unless they have met criteria for a near pin of the opponent, or the opponent stands up and has all his/her weight on two feet, or the wrestler has lifted the opponent off the mat.
      • Leaving the mat during the match without the referee’s permission.
      • Reporting to the mat not properly equipped or not ready to wrestle, or equipment that is detected as being illegal after the match has started.
      • Unnecessary roughness.
      • Unsportsmanlike conduct.
      • Stalling (the wrestler gets one warning before they are penalized and points are awarded).
      • Incorrect starting position or false start (wrestlers receive two cautions before points are awarded).
      • The first and second time the wrestler is penalized, the opponent is awarded one point. The third time the wrestler is penalized, the opponent is awarded two points. The fourth time the wrestler are penalized, they are disqualified. (Except for illegal starting position or false start – the wrestler is cautioned twice, then one point awarded for each infraction, but will not be disqualified.

There are several ways a wrestling match can end:

  1. Pin A pin is when the wrestler holds their opponent's shoulder blades flat to the mat for 2 seconds.
  2. Technical Fall A technical fall and is when a wrestler accumulates 15 points over their opponent. The match ends the moment the official awards the points that eclipses this threshold.
  3. Flagrant Misconduct In the event of Flagrant Misconduct, the offending wrestler is ejected from the match on the first offense, and loses the match.
  4. Disqualification
*Overtime, blood round, injury clock, Bridge, Shoot, Sprawl, Throw, scratch,
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